Outline in Bio 3
by: Maria Eliza P. Cruz
Course Title: Comparative Vertebrate Anatomy
is the study of the body structures of some representative vertebrate animals and of their functional and evolutionary relationships.
To explore the phylogenic history of the vertebrate
body that has undergone structural changes with varied environments and mode of life.
phylum chordata, the vertebrate body - general plan and vertebrate characteristics
2. Protochordates and the Origin of
Protochordates, the origin of vertebrates, the ammocoete and an alternate theory of ammocoete-protochordate
3. Parade of the Vertebrates
Vertebrate taxa, Agnatha, chondrichthyes, osteichthyes, amphibia, reptilia, aves and mammals.
epidermis, the dermis and dermal induction. The integument from fishes to mammals.
5. An Introduction to the Skeleton
Bone, Cartilage, Tendons, Ligaments and Joints,regional components of the skeleton and Heterotopic Bones.
6. Skull and Visceral Skeleton
the generalized dermatocranium, the neurocranial complex - bony fishes and tetrapods and the visceral skeleton.
7. Vertebrae, Ribs and Sterna
vertebral column, Ribs and Tetrapod sternum.
8. Girdles, Fins, Limbs and Locomotion
Pectoral girdles, pelvic girdles, fins and tetrapod limbs.
Muscles, introduction to skeletal muscles. Axial, appendicular, branchiomeric and integumentary muscles
10. Digestive System
tract, mouth and oral cavity, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, intestine, liver, pancreas and cloaca.
11. Respiratory System
Gills, Nares and Nasal canals, Swim bladder, lungs and their ducts.
12. Circulatory System
the heart of fishes, lung fishes, amphibians and amniotes. Arterial channels, Venous channels and Lymphatic system.
13. Nervous System
Spinal cord and spinal nerves and Brain and cranial nerves
14. Sense Organs
Special somatic receptors and special visceral receptors.
Kidneys and their ducts, Urinary bladders, Genital organs and the cloaca.
- Kent, Carr, Comparative Anatomy of the Vertebrates, McGraw Hill, 9th
- Kardong, Vertebrates, Comparative Anatomy, Function, Evolution, McGraw Hill, International Editions, 2000